Chemotherapy: Types, Uses, Negative Effects

by on September 28, 2016


Chemotherapy: Types, Uses, Negative Effects


MNT Knowledge Center

Chemotherapy is using medication (chemicals) to deal with disease. More particularly, chemotherapy typically refers back to the destruction of cancer cells. However, chemotherapy might also include using antibiotics or any other medications to deal with any illness or infection.

This short article focuses on chemotherapy for cancer treatment. Cytotoxic medication prevents cancer cells from dividing and growing. When medical professionals discuss chemotherapy today, they often have a tendency to refer more to cytotoxic medication than the others.

Chemotherapy history

Following a military operation in The Second World War some mariners were accidentally uncovered to mustard gas. These were later found to possess really low white-colored bloodstream cell counts. White-colored bloodstream cells usually grow very rapidly – cancer cells also divide and also be very rapidly.

The doctors wondered if the aftereffect of mustard gas – slowing lower the rapid development of white-colored bloodstream cells – may have a similar impact on cancer cell growth.

Doctors attempted testing patients with advanced lymphomas by injecting a compound in mustard gas. Although the effect was temporary, the patients did notice a outstanding improvement.

This brought to analyze into other substances that may slow lower or steer clear of the division and development of cancer cells. Within the decades several new improved drugs were produced.

There are other than 100 various kinds of chemotherapy drugs today which could treat cancer malignancy.

Dna testing helps doctors target chemotherapy more precisely. Testing for genetic mutations might help identify cancer of the breast patients who’ll not take advantage of a particular kind of chemotherapy, scientists in the USA and Norwegian reported.

By staring at the patterns by which light bounces from the surfaces of cells, researchers might be able to assess chemotherapy’s success in triggering cancer cell dying, based on research brought by investigators within the Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center and Duke’s Pratt School of Engineering.

Chemotherapy is frequently used alongside anything else. Doctors and patients must take workout seriously, due to the benefits for a lot of cancer patients. Patients who regularly exercise after chemotherapy treatment have a lower chance of cancer recurrence, when compared with those who are physically inactive, researchers in the College of Nebraska reported in the Integrative Biology of Exercise Mire meeting in October 2012. They are saying their findings might help investigators realise why exercise may greatly prevent secondary cancer in survivors. They added that exercise may also lower the likelihood of ever developing cancer among individuals who have not had the condition.

Chemotherapy has five possible goals

Total remission – for stopping the individual completely. In some instances chemotherapy alone can eliminate cancer completely.

Combination therapy – chemotherapy might help other therapies, for example radiotherapy or surgery convey more effective results.

Delay/Prevent recurrence – chemotherapy, when accustomed to avoid the return of the cancer, is most frequently used following a tumor is taken away surgically. Scientists in the Charite Med school, Germany, discovered that using the drug gemcitabine for chemotherapy considerably delays the recurrence of cancer, when compared with no chemotherapy.

Slow lower cancer progression – used mainly once the cancer is within its advanced stages along with a cure is not likely. Chemotherapy can slow lower the growth of cancer.

To alleviate signs and symptoms – also more often employed for patients with advanced cancer.

So how exactly does chemotherapy work?

Doctor holding chemotherapy medication

When the body cells are broken or die we produce brand new ones to exchange them. This is accomplished within an orderly way, inside a balanced way. Cancer cells don’t have that orderly capacity – their reproduction (division and growth) has run out of control – increasingly more seem to be created and linked with emotions . occupy increasingly more space, until finally they push out space occupied by helpful cells.

Chemotherapy (chemotherapy) drugs hinder a cancer cell’s capability to divide and reproduce. Chemotherapy drugs might be applied in to the blood stream to fight cancer cells through the body, or they may be delivered straight to specific cancer sites.

Chemotherapy drugs operate in other ways:

Impairing mitosis (prevent cell division) – these are classified as cytotoxic drugs.

Targeting cancer cell’s meal source, enzymes and hormones they might require to be able to grow.

Stopping the development of recent bloodstream vessels supplying a tumor. Inside a study, researchers in the Johns Hopkins College Med school discovered the way a whole type of generally used chemotherapy drugs can destroy cancer by blocking circulation system growth.

Triggering suicide of cancer cells – cell suicide is famous medically as apoptosis.

Patients may receive monotherapy or combination therapy:

Monotherapy – the individual is offered only one drug.

Combination therapy – the individual receives several drug.

Which sort the individual receives is determined by the type of cancer the individual has, plus some other health factors.

Chemotherapy might be given at different stages

Neo-adjuvant therapy – when the tumor is big choices might want to shrink it before surgery. This might incorporate some pre-operative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

Chemoradiation therapy – the chemotherapy is offered in conjunction with radiotherapy. Patients with localized Hodgkin’s lymphoma in which the tumor can be found over the diaphragm ought to be given chemotherapy coupled with radiotherapy, European scientists reported after transporting out a medical trial. Another study reported the solid tumor cells that survive chemoradiation therapy frequently finish up more powerful compared to what they were before.

Adjuvant therapy – chemotherapy given after surgery. Using chemotherapy following surgery reduces the chance of dying from operable pancreatic cancer by around 30%, a United kingdom study found.

Frequently age will settle if chemotherapy should be applied out all for patients with certain cancers. Researchers in the Mayo Clinic, USA, discovered that the mixture of chemotherapies 5FU and oxaliplatin when compared with 5FU alone after surgery for cancer of the colon decreases cancer of the colon recurrence and promotes longer survival for patients under 70 – although not for individuals who’re older.

How lengthy is really a span of chemotherapy?

In nearly all cases for the best results the individual will require regular chemotherapy on the specific period. A protocol plan’s attracted up which specifies when treatment sessions will occur as well as for how lengthy.

A training course of chemotherapy might be only a one-day treatment, or may last for a couple of days – it depends around the type and stage from the cancer (how advanced it’s). When the patient requires several treatment you will see an escape period for his/her body to recuperate. This may be a 1-day treatment adopted with a week’s rest period, adopted by a different one-day treatment adopted with a three-week rest period, etc. This can be repeated many occasions.

The number of medical professionals take part in chemotherapy treatment?

It all depends on working practices of the hospital, or perhaps the country you reside in. In many countries you will see a multi-disciplinary team who treat a person’s cancer. These could include:

A clinical oncologist – a physician which specializes in cancer but doesn’t do surgery. He/she’s focused on chemotherapy.

A cancer nurse – most likely the very first person the individual will come across when arriving for chemotherapy.

A hematologist – this can be a physician who’s focused on study regarding bloodstream and bone marrow.

A pathologist – this can be a physician which specializes in the identification of illnesses by analyzing tissues and cells within microscope.

A psychiatrist – he/she’ll assist the patient cope with the emotional and mental ordeal of chemotherapy.

Bloodstream tests before and through chemotherapy treatment

Bloodstream tests are necessary to assess the healthiness of the individual in addition to making certain heOrshe can deal with possible side-effects. For instance, bloodstream tests can identify liver problems, which would mean that chemotherapy is unacceptable for that patient unless of course the liver recovers. Chemotherapy chemicals are metabolized (damaged lower) within the liver that could be injured if it’s not working correctly.

Before chemotherapy you should test a person’s bloodstream count since the treatment will reduce the amount of red and white-colored bloodstream cells, in addition to platelets. If your bloodstream test reveals a minimal bloodstream count the doctors might wish to delay treatment.

Researchers in the Paul Papin Cancer Center in Angers, France, reported that calculating drug levels in patients’ bloodstream and modifying them for optimal dosing can substantially reduce severe toxicity and improve effectiveness in colorectal cancer.

Regular bloodstream tests continues throughout the treatment period so the medical team can keep close track of bloodstream count and also the condition from the patient’s liver. Since you may read under side-effects further lower this site, there’s a danger that chemotherapy may lower white-colored, red, and platelet bloodstream level counts.

Monitoring a person’s bloodstream can provide doctors significant data about how well the chemotherapy is working.

Two methods for giving chemotherapy

With respect to the kind of cancer, chemotherapy might be administered orally or intravenously (into the vein).

Dental chemotherapy (swallowing tablets)

These is going to be by means of tablets. When the patient’s health enables it he/she can bring them in your own home. However, regular hospital visits it’s still needed to evaluate a person’s health insurance and reaction to treatment.

It is essential that the tablets be used exactly when specified. When the patient forgets to consider one in a specific time he/she should call the medical team immediately.

Intravenous chemotherapy (into the vein)

Chemotherapy being given to a patient

Intravenous chemotherapy might be given as:

A shot directly into a vein.

Via a drip (intravenous infusion).

Via a drip or pump.

Via a pump the patient wears for many days or several weeks. This really is known as continuous infusion, protracted venous infusion, or ambulant infusion (meaning the individual can walk about while finding the medication).

There are various methods for obtaining the medication in to the patient. Included in this are:

A cannula – a skinny tube is placed with the skin in to the vein – usually it enters your body via the rear of the hands or even the wrist.

A drip (intravenous infusion) – to be able to dilute the medication it might be injected right into a bag. The answer within the bag will go through a tube in to the patients arm and right into a vein (intravenous infusion). A cannula is going to be used. The answer will go into the vein gradually.

Chemotherapy via a drip usually pressed finished a pump. The pump doesn’t hurry the procedure up, rather it can make sure the answer enters the vein in a constant rate on the specific period – the slower the speed, the more the entire factor will require.

A main line – this can be a lengthy, flexible, plastic line (thin tube) which results in a main circulation system within the chest, near to the heart. The central line usually enters your body through the middle of the chest area and rises underneath the skin right into a large vein through the collarbone (clavicle). The only real visible part is the size of line that hangs from the small entry hole within the chest.

A peripherally placed central catheter (PICC) line – a lengthy, thin, flexible tube that’s placed right into a peripheral vein, usually within the upper arm and gets into a sizable vein within the chest close to the heart. It’s just like a main line but includes a different reason for entry.

A portacath (implantable port) – a skinny, soft, flexible plastic tube adopts a vein. It features a port (opening) just below your skin from the chest or arm. The main harbour includes a thin rubber disc which special needles can pass medicines into, or take bloodstream from.

Chemotherapy, pregnancy and contraception

Many chemotherapy drugs could cause birth defects. It is crucial that a lady undergoing chemotherapy avoids getting pregnant. Since many chemotherapy medications hinder dental contraceptives you should make use of a barrier approach to contraception, for example condoms, throughout the whole chemotherapy treatment period as well as for annually after treatment methods are completed. If you’re pregnant you have to tell the medical team immediately in advance. Should you conceive during treatment tell the medical team immediately.

Around the next page we consider the negative effects of chemotherapy, protecting the gut from chemotherapy so we take a look at a few of the latest research developments inside the section of chemotherapy, together with a study which implies you may decide to do not eat sardines and spanish mackerel within the 48 hrs surrounding chemotherapy.


MNT Knowledge Center

(Ongoing from the first page…)

Negative effects of chemotherapy

Many people immediately link chemotherapy with uncomfortable negative effects. However, side-effect management has improved significantly during the last two decades. Many negative effects which were once inevitable could be either avoided or well controlled today.

There’s no reliable method to predict how patients may respond to chemotherapy. Some experience very mild side-effect, others may have none whatsoever, although some individuals will report various signs and symptoms.

With respect to the kind of cancer and treatment, chemotherapy could have a bigger effect on a person’s work status than radiotherapy. Women with cancer of the breast who receive chemotherapy appear much more likely than individuals given radiotherapy to get a major alternation in work status, based on researchers in the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.

Probably the most generally reported negative effects of chemotherapy

Side-effect #1: Vomiting and nausea

Over 1 / 2 of all patients receiving chemotherapy are experiencing vomiting and nausea. Doctors will often prescribe anti-emetics with this. These have to be taken even if signs and symptoms go because they may prevent them from returning. When the anti-emetics fail to work the individual should contact his/her physician who may change to another anti-emetic.

Ginger root – scientists in the Rochester College Clinic discovered that taking ginger root supplements with standard anti-vomiting drugs in advance can help to eliminate the nausea that frequently comes with chemotherapy treatment by 40%.

Side-effect #2: Alopecia (hair thinning)

Some chemotherapy medications cause hair thinning while some don’t. If hair does begin to drop out this can usually happen a couple of days after treatment starts. On some occasions your hair will undoubtedly become thinner and much more brittle (without receding). Hair thinning can happen in almost any area of the body.

Although hair thinning doesn’t have health effects, you can get distress and embarrassment for many people. The mental impact is commonly greater among women than men. Should you experience hair thinning and discover it’s causing distress and embarrassment, there are many things you can do:

Inform your physician, who may recommend a therapist who are able to provide effective support and help.

Lots of people discover that when they buy a wig their quality of existence improves considerably.

If there’s a cancer support group in your town, visit their conferences. Meeting individuals who share similar encounters to yourself might help provide you with a boost, in addition to supplying you with a few helpful tips, and perhaps an chance to create new buddies.

Cold cap – this looks similar to a motorcycle helmet and keeps the scalp awesome as the chemotherapy dose has been administered. When the scalp could be stored awesome less chemotherapy medication reaches the scalp, thus stopping the occurrence or reducing the seriousness of hair thinning. Many people cannot put on a chilly cap – leukemia (bloodstream cancer) patients require the medication to achieve their scalp.

Your hair loss isn’t permanent – it’ll re-grow right after treatment methods are finished.

Side-effect #3: Fatigue

Most sufferers receiving chemotherapy are experiencing some extent of fatigue. This is usually a general feeling which exists the majority of the day, or may appear after certain activities. Doctors say patients have to make certain they get lots of rest and never to do tasks that are overtiring.

While simple exercises continues to be proven to assist, you should keep those activities ‘light’.

When the tiredness becomes severe you should tell the physician, as this may be the result of a significant stop by red bloodstream cells (anemia).

Side-effect #4: Hearing impairment (deafness, ototoxicity)

Scientists from Or Health & Science College reported that deafness as an unwanted effect of chemotherapy has lengthy been underreported through the medical community, just because a well-known classification system doctors use for reporting toxicities in patients doesn’t consider high-frequency hearing problems, allowing the magnitude of ototoxicity (hearing damage) in youngsters given platinum agents to become miscalculated.

Kids with cancer who are suffering hearing problems because of the toxic results of chemotherapy might eventually be capable of getting their hearing back through medicinal and gene therapy, stated researchers from St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital after transporting out research on rodents.

Side-effect #5: Neutropenia (low white-colored bloodstream cells) – Inclination towards infections

When receiving chemotherapy the defense mechanisms is going to be weakened since the white-colored bloodstream cell count goes lower. White-colored bloodstream cells form a part of our defense mechanisms – they fight infection. Consequently, patients be prone to infections.

Some patients is going to be prescribed antibiotics which might reduce their chance of developing infections. The next safeguards can help prevent infections:

Individual hygiene – the cleanser you’re, the less bacteria you will see around which could infect you. Regularly wash both hands with warm soapy water, possess a bath/shower at least one time each day, improve your clothes and toilet towels and flannels daily. Improve your bed linens regularly.

Food preparation – make certain the food is freed from food borne pathogens (microorganisms, for example bacteria which will make you ill). Should you handle raw meat make certain you wash both hands before touching plates and utensils or worktops. Completely prepare animal sourced proteins before eating them. Wash your dishes completely and try to make use of a clean plate and utensils – keep your kitchen clean.

Infected people – avoid those who are ill. This might include individuals who simply have a temperature.

Skin wounds – bacteria fight to enter using your skin, unless of course there’s a cut. Should you graze or reduce your skin, clean the region well with tepid to warm water, dry it, and canopy it having a sterile dressing.

Patients receiving chemotherapy who develop contamination need immediate treatment. This might mean being hospitalized and receiving antibiotics with an intravenous drip.

Side-effect #6: Thrombocytopenia (low bloodstream platelet count) – bloodstream clotting problems

Chemotherapy may lower a person’s bloodstream platelet count. A platelet is a kind of bloodstream cell that can help the bloodstream to clot (coagulate). Coagulation is important, otherwise bleeding doesn’t stop. Lower bloodstream platelet counts associated with chemotherapy is really a risk, but less so than lower red or white-colored bloodstream cell counts. If you’re affected you’ll bruise easier, you’ll be more prone to have nosebleeds and bleeding gums, and when you chop yourself it might be harder to prevent the bleeding.

Patient’s whose bloodstream platelet counts fall lacking will require a bloodstream transfusion.

Listed below are some steps you may decide to take to take down chance of bleeding:

Shave by having an electric shaver (or don’t shave)

Avoid hard toothbrushes

Use kitchen utensils and gardening equipment carefully

If you’re gardening, put on mitts.

Side-effect #7: Anemia (low red bloodstream-cell count)

And reduce you white-colored bloodstream cell count, chemotherapy may also decrease your red bloodstream cell count. Tissues and organs within your body obtain oxygen in the red bloodstream cells. In case your red bloodstream cell count goes lower a lot of parts of the body won’t get enough oxygen and you’ll develop anemia.

Individuals with anemia feel totally tired. Someone on chemotherapy that has anemia will feel extra tired – a lot more tired than straightforward fatigue brought on by the therapy. Dyspnea (difficulty breathing) can also be another characteristic of anemia, much like palpitations (once the heartbeat is irregular).

Anemia associated with chemotherapy requires immediate treatment. A bloodstream transfusion brings the red bloodstream cell count support immediately. Erythropoietin (EPO) is really a drug which makes your body produce more red bloodstream cells.

The next foods are wealthy in iron, which will help red bloodstream cells carry more oxygen. Dark eco-friendly leafy vegetables, beans, meat, nuts, prunes, raisins, and apricots.

Scientists in the Medical College of Vienna, Austria discovered that patients with cancer of the breast who developed anemia during chemotherapy had nearly three occasions the chance of local recurrence as individuals who didn’t.

Side-effect #8: Mucositis (inflammation from the mucous membrane)

Chemotherapy attacks quickly dividing cells, for example bloodstream cells, bone marrow cells, and cells from the mucous membranes that line how excess – including the mouth area, wind pipe, stomach, intestines, and also the rectum towards the anus. Chemotherapy damages as well as destroy a number of individuals mucous membrane cells.

Dental Mucositis (within the mouth) – patients more generally experience signs and symptoms within their mouth.

If signs and symptoms do appear, they’ll usually achieve this about about a week after treatment starts. Within the mouth area may go through like sunburn many people express it feels as though the region have been scalded. Ulcers frequently show up on the liner from the mouth, the tongue, and often round the lips. The seriousness of signs and symptoms is carefully from the strength from the chemotherapy dose.

Some might find it painful once they eat, drink, or perhaps talk. When the ulcers bleed there’s a danger of infection.

Caphosol is frequently prescribed for mucositis.

A medical trial demonstrated that from 100 cancer patients which were given DAVANAT? and chemotherapy that incorporated 5-FU, none developed mucositis.

As better medicine is appearing, mucositis has become less frequent. Signs and symptoms obvious up a couple of days after treatment methods are completed.

Side-effect #9: Appetite loss

Appetite loss is a very common side-effect of chemotherapy. It’s possible the chemotherapy, or even the cancer itself, affects your body’s metabolic process. If losing appetite is simply because of the chemotherapy it is once the treatment methods are finished – even though this may sometimes have a couple of days.

The seriousness of appetite and consequent weight reduction depends upon the kind of cancer and chemotherapy treatment.

Even though this is sometimes simpler stated than can be done, you should keep attempting to eat correctly and consume lots of fluids. Many patients discover that smaller sized and much more frequent your meals are simpler to obtain lower compared to typical three meal-a-day regime. Also, consuming fluids via a straw may lead to a much better fluid intake.

Patients who become seriously impacted by insufficient food and liquid intake might need to be hospitalized and given via a nasogastric tube. The tube adopts a person’s nose and lower to his/her stomach.

Side-effect #10: Nails and skin

Chemotherapy can occasionally cause dry and sore skin. Nails might also become flaky and brittle. Your skin can become more responsive to sunlight. You should safeguard yourself from an excessive amount of sunlight exposure. Including remaining from the sun during peak occasions during the day, using sun lotions, and putting on clothes that offer maximum protection. Surprisingly, scientists at Michigan College, USA, reported the chemotherapy drug fluorouracil made an appearance to lessen the look of sun-broken and aging skin along with the quantity of potentially pre-cancerous skin patches.

Side-effect #11: Cognitive problems

About one fifth of patients undergoing chemotherapy report some type of cognitive problem, including attention, thinking and memory. This could sometimes have an affect on daily tasks. Patients that do experience these signs and symptoms should speak with their physician, and social worker.

Signs and symptoms can include:

Shorter attention span concentration, focus and a focus problems

Memory problems particularly the short-term memory

Comprehension and understand problems

Judgment and reasoning problems

Business skills might be affected

Multitasking problems (performing/considering a number of things simultaneously)


Experts are unsure just how much is a result of the chemotherapy, and just how much is a result of fatigue, anxiety and stress that is included with getting cancer.

Side-effect #12: Libido (libido) and fertility

For any significant proportion of patients, chemotherapy may lead to a lesser libido (less need for sex). This really is temporary in most cases returns after treatment methods are completed.

With respect to the kind of medication administered, chemotherapy might also damage men’s sperm. Some women can become infertile. Generally – though not every – fertility returns after treatment methods are over.

Men who would like to father children and ladies who intend to conceive eventually should discuss possible options using their doctors before beginning treatment. You’ll be able to freeze sperm and embryos.

Side-effect #13: Bowel movement problems (diarrhea or constipation)

When broken cells within the digestive tract are quickly expelled in the body there’s a danger of diarrhea. Constipation is another possible risk for chemotherapy patients. You need to speak to your physician should you experience any uncomfortable alternation in your bowel motions. Signs and symptoms, when they occur, is going to do so a couple of days after chemotherapy begins.

Side-effect #14: Depression

The chance of developing depression has already been greater for patients with cancer. It is perfectly normal to feel distressed, anxious, sad and stressed – particularly if you are worried by what the long run holds and whether treatment will probably be effective.

It is crucial that you speak with part of the medical team if you think it’s all starting to be an excessive amount of, or you no more get pleasure out of what you accustomed to like. Joining an assistance group and speaking to those who are studying the just like you and also understand your feelings helps lots of people with cancer.

Protecting the gut from chemotherapy in the event of metastatic cancer

When cancer has spread past the primary tumor with other areas of the body, i.e. if this has metastasized, treatments have a tendency to involve intensive chemoradiotherapy. Extremely high doses of raditation therapy and chemotherapy damage good tissue and frequently push the individual a great dying.

Researchers in the College of Michigan School of Dentistry reported within the journal Nature they found a method to preserve the healthiness of the gut in laboratory rodents that were given high doses of chemoradiotherapy.

Team leader, Jian-Guo Geng, stated “All tumors from various tissues and organs could be wiped out by high doses of chemotherapy and radiation, however the current challenge for the treatment of the later-staged metastasized cancer is you really get rid of the patient before you decide to get rid of the tumor.”

Healthy digestive system improves survival – the scientists discovered that when the gut of rodents with metastatic cancer remained healthy after intensive chemoradiotherapy, their likelihood of survival elevated tremendously.

You will find stem cells within the gut from the laboratory rodents which help preserve tissue after undergoing lethal doses of chemoradiotherapy. Geng and colleagues found a means of obtaining the gut stem cells to produce an enormous healing campaign.

Gene print might help predict who’ll survive chemotherapy

An 8-gene “print” or “signature” can predict how lengthy people remain cancer-free, with no relapse after undergoing chemotherapy, researchers from Academia Sinica and also the National Taiwan College College of drugs described within the journal BMC Medicine.

Prof Ker-Chau Li and team located genes that take part in cellular invasion – something several cancer cells do. They collected and examined data in the National Cancer Institute’s 60 human cancer cell line panel.

Prof. Li stated “Our study found eight genes that have been involved with invasion, and also the relative activation of those genes correlated to chemotherapy outcome, such as the receptor for growth factor EGF. We discovered that some invasion genes had unique patterns of expression that reflect the differential cell responses to each one of the chemotherapy agents – five drugs (paclitaxel, docetaxel, erlotinib, everolimus and dasatinib) had the finest effect.”

Recent developments on chemotherapy

Immunotherapy heralds ‘new era’ for cancer treatment

Inside a study printed within the Colonial Journal of drugs, experts claim that immunotherapy – using drugs to stimulate immune response – is extremely effective against cancer and may eventually replace chemotherapy because the standard strategy to cancer.

Certain fish oils ‘may induce chemoresistance in cancer patients’

Research printed in JAMA Oncology discovered that consuming sardines, spanish mackerel and certain fish oils could raise the chance of cancer patients becoming resistant against chemotherapy.

The authors from the study state that, “although further evidence around the relation between fish consumption and chemotherapy activity is preferred, we’d presently also recommend to prevent sardines and spanish mackerel within the 48 hrs surrounding chemotherapy exposure.”

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